Plant in moist soil in full sun or partial shade. Primarily an understory plant and can be used even in heavy shade. Insects and diseases are not a serious problem with this species. In the nursery we train them to be tree-like rather than shrub-like. This species tends to be thin-calipered and can easily be pruned back to 1-2′ when planted because they will need to be staked otherwise.
Sycamore, Red Maple, Sugar Maple, Swamp White Oak, Hackberry, Wild Cherry and Nannyberry from personal observation.
A shrub to 10′ that has disk shaped seeds. The task for the nurseryman is to get the seeds germinated; which can be difficult. The pom pom like seeds persist throughout the winter.